What is crest of dam?

What is crest of dam?

Crest of Dam (Top of Dam) – The top of the dam not designed to flow water; also known as the top of dam. Crest of Spillway – The top of the spillway where water flows over.

What is a dam gate?

Dam gates are broadly categorized as flood control installations and irrigation installations (equipment for drawing in and discharging water for agricultural irrigation, towns and cities, and power generation).

What spillway means?

Definition of spillway : a passage for surplus water to run over or around an obstruction (such as a dam)

What is dam axis?

Axis of dam. A vertical plane or curved surface, appearing as a line in plan or cross section, to which horizontal dimensions can be referred. Axis of dam (concrete) A vertical reference surface coincident with the upstream face at the top of the dam.

What is free board in dam?

Freeboard: The vertical distance from the water surface to the lowest elevation at which water would flow over the dam at a section not designed to be overflowed.

What is toe drain?

The purpose of the toe drain is to collect water seepage in the earthen dam and safely convey it to the pond outfall (8” toe drain outlet pipes can be seen on either side of the large rectangular spillway pipes in the photo below). Toe drains perform an important function in maintaining a safe and secure dam.

What is crest elevation?

Crest elevation is the principal design parameter determining the range of possible functions of a dam at a particular dam site. For most storage and control functions crest elevation (with a freeboard 2 of about 3.0 m or more) is set to provide a certain impounded reservoir water volume.

What is spillway and types?

A spillway is a hydraulic structure built at a dam site for diverting the surplus water from a reservoir after it has been filled to its maximum capacity. Spillways are classified into different types on the basis of the arrangement of the control structure, a conveyance channel and a terminal structure.

What is spillway capacity?

Spillway capacity means the maximum rate of discharge that will pass through a spillway at design flood elevation.

What is toe and heel in dam?

Heel: contact with the ground on the upstream side. Toe: contact on the downstream side. Abutment: Sides of the valley on which the structure of the dam rest.

What is length of dam?

Length-of-dam means the horizontal dimension as measured along the crest of the dam from natural abutment to natural abutment. Spillway systems over the dam but not in the abutment area are included in the length determination. For upground reservoirs the length is the continuous distance around the crest of the dam.

What is fetch length in dam?

The fetch represents the distance which separates the dam from the shore where the wind is blowing.

What is training wall in dam?

Training walls – concrete walls on either side of the spillway chute. Intake training walls – training wall upstream from the crest. Silting basin – deep basin located at the bottom of the chute and is designed to reduce the turbulence of the spillway flow also referred as “spillway bucket”.

What is Cascade drain?

Cascade drain is one of the hydraulic structures that are widely used in slope condition area. The functions of cascade drain are to control and convey flows from surface runoff at upstream to downstream.

What is chute drain?

Pipe slope drains can be either temporary or permanent, depending on the method of installation and the material used. Chutes and flumes are channels that are designed to conduct runoff down a slope face and discharge the water to a stable outlet area without causing erosion.

What is crest length?

CREST LENGTH – The measured length of the top of the dam from abutment to abutment. This includes the length of spillway, powerhouse, navigation lock, fish ladder, etc, where these structures form part of the length of the dam. If detached from the dam, these structures should not be included.

What is difference between reservoir and dam?

Dam is created as a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Whereas, Reservoir is an open-air storage area (usually formed by masonry or earthwork) where water is collected and kept in quantity so that it may be drawn off for use.

What is Gallery in gravity dam?

Galleries are openings or passageways left in the dam body. They may be provided parallel or normal to dam axis at various elevations The galleries are interconnected by steeply sloping passages or by vertical shafts fitted with lifts.

What are the types of spillway?

7 Different Types of Spillways

  • Straight Drop Spillway.
  • Ogee Spillway.
  • Shaft Spillway.
  • Chute Spillway.
  • Side Channel Spillway.
  • Siphon Spillway.
  • Labyrinth Spillway.

What is upstream and downstream in dams?

Definition of Dam is as an obstruction constructed across a stream or river. At the back of this barrier water is collected forming a pool. The side on which water is collected is called upstream side and the other side of the barrier is called downstream side.

What does it mean to be a person of integrity?

A person of integrity will consistently demonstrate good character by being free of corruption and hypocrisy. Integrity is revealed when people act virtuously regardless of circumstance or consequences. This often requires moral courage. Indeed, integrity is the critical connection between ethics and moral action.

What does it mean to overtop something?

To extend or rise over or beyond the top of; tower above. 2. To take precedence over; override: “Religion overtopped the common affairs of life” (Albert C. Baugh). 3.

What are examples of integrity in workplace?

Honesty and trust are central to integrity, as is consistency. Here are examples of integrity in action so you can recognize this important character trait in employees and coworkers. What Is Integrity? A person with integrity demonstrates sound moral and ethical principles and does the right thing, no matter who’s watching.

What is the difference between hypocrisy and integrity?

Integrity. Integrity can stand in opposition to hypocrisy, in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within themselves apparently conflicting values should account for the discrepancy or alter their beliefs.