What are the differential diagnosis of leukocoria?
These include persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), Coats’ disease, ocular toxocariasis, retinopathy of prematurity, retinal hamartomas (Bourneville’s tuberous sclerosis, von Recklinhausen’s disease), congenital falciform fold or organized vitreous hemorrhage (Howard and Ellsworth 1965a; Shields, Shields et …
What is the most common cause of leukocoria?
Leukocoria, the most common presenting sign, is caused by light reflection from the tumor’s white surface (Fig. 32.11) as opposed to the usual red reflex from the retina. Approximately 25% present with strabismus. Less common presentations include periocular inflammation, glaucoma, and proptosis.
What is leukocoria?
Definition and Terminology. Leukocoria, meaning “white pupil,” originates from the Greek words “leukos” (white) and “kore” (pupil). It refers to the reflection of white light seen upon direct illumination of the fundus through the pupil, in contrast to the usual red glow.
How do you test for leukocoria?
Sometimes leukocoria is detected from photographs using a flash when one pupil has an abnormal or “white reflex” compared to the other eye having a normal “red reflex.” Lastly, a routine pediatrician exam can catch leukocoria, specifically when they look into the eyes with a special instrument called an ophthalmoscope.
Is leukocoria a diagnosis?
Leukocoria is an abnormal pupillary reflex more clearly seen on mydriasis or photography. It is often the first sign of a range of serious intraocular disorders including congenital cataract, Coats disease, retinoblastoma, retinopathy of prematurity, toxocariasis, Norrie disease, and retrolental fibroplasia.
Why is the pupil white in leukocoria?
Leukocoria is a whitish or altered pupillary reflex that appears due to obstruction of the normal retinochoroidal vasculature, which reflects through the pupil.
What causes Stargardt’s disease?
Stargardt disease is usually caused by changes in a gene called ABCA4. This gene affects how your body uses vitamin A. The body uses vitamin A to make cells in the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye). Then the ABCA4 gene makes a protein to clean up the fatty material that’s left over.
What is ocular toxocariasis?
Ocular toxocariasis is a rare infection caused by roundworms, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. It was first recognized to be associated with dogs in the 1940s. It typically affects children and can lead to profound monocular loss of vision despite known medical and surgical therapies.
What causes white pupils?
The appearance of a white pupil is never a normal condition and requires immediate evaluation by specialists trained in ophthalmology. A cloudy cornea or cataract may be mistaken for a white pupil, but usually a white pupil is due to infection or disease.
What is Starguard disease?
Stargardt disease is a rare genetic eye disease that happens when fatty material builds up on the macula — the small part of the retina needed for sharp, central vision. Vision loss usually starts in childhood — but some people with Stargardt disease don’t start to lose their vision until they’re adults.
What are signs of toxocariasis?
Symptoms of toxocariasis
- a high temperature.
- coughing or wheezing.
- stomach ache.
- an itchy rash.
- eye pain or redness.
- changes to your sight, such as seeing small dots or lines (floaters) or flashes of light.
- loss of vision (usually in 1 eye)
Does glaucoma cause leukocoria?
Leukocoria results from a complete pupillary membrane, cataract, fibrovascular sheath attached to the posterior lens capsule, strabismus, and a rarely cloudy cornea due to glaucoma.
What does Vitelliform mean?
vitelliform (not comparable) Resembling the yolk of an egg.
What is fundus Flavimaculatus?
Fundus Flavimaculatus is a genetic condition which is considered to represent one of two ends of the spectrum of a disease which is comprised of the presentation of retinal flecks. Research has shown that the ABCA4 and PRPH2 genes may be linked to the onset of the condition, as well as the overproduction of vitamin A.
What two human diseases are caused by Toxocara?
Some people may get sick from the infection and may develop the following:
- Ocular toxocariasis: Ocular toxocariasis occurs when Toxocara larvae migrate to the eye.
- Visceral toxocariasis: Visceral toxocariasis occurs when Toxocara larvae migrate to various body organs, such as the liver or central nervous system.
Is Toxocara the same as toxoplasmosis?
Abstract. Toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis are parasitic infections that are transmitted by cats and dogs, respectively, to humans, and which may induce posterior uveitis already in childhood. Toxoplasmosis presents as a congenitally or postnatally contracted infection whereas toxocariasis is always an acquired disease.
Why is there leukocoria in cataracts?
What causes Best’s disease?
Best disease is a genetic condition. This means that it is caused by a “faulty” gene which may be inherited from a parent or occur as a new fault in the gene. Best disease can be caused by a fault in a gene known as BEST1 (also known as VMD2).
What causes Vitelliform?
Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) is a genetic form of macular degeneration (damage to a part of the eye called the macula) that occurs in about 1 in 10,000 individuals. The physical cause of BVMD is breakdown of the tissue in the retina called retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).