What was the single whip system?
The single-whip method (yitiaobianfa, 一条鞭法) was a tax simplification reform. proposed by the Ming government which Liang Fang-chung regarded as “the begin- ning of the modern land tax system.” 4 Though detailed implementation varied from. place-to-place, some features like “land taxes and labor service were unified …
How is fWAR calculated?
The basis for a WAR value is the estimated number of runs contributed by a player through offensive actions such as batting and base running, and runs denied to opposition teams by the player through defensive actions like fielding and pitching.
How did the Ming collect tax?
Ming taxation was light. Taxes on agriculture were only 1/30 of agricultural produce, and were later reduced to 1/50 of produce. Taxes on commerce amounted to 1/30 of commerce also, but was later reduced to 1.5%. These low taxes spurred trade, but severely weakened the state.
How did Silver actually reduce the number of tax collections within the Ming Dynasty?
Silver could be used to pay government officials and hire laborers. Peasants were also freed from the trouble of transporting grain to the government granaries, instead paying their taxes directly to collecting agencies at the local level.
What did the single whip reform do?
Therefore, by reducing complexity, the Single Whip law reduced the costs of tax collection, while also increasing the tax base. The unit of tax collection was changed from rice to silver, which led to an increase in the import of silver into China from Japan and Spanish-controlled America.
What is Ottoman tax farming?
iltizām, in the Ottoman Empire, taxation system carried out by farming of public revenue. The state auctioned taxation rights to the highest bidder (mültazim, plural mültezim or mültazims), who then collected the state taxes and made payments in fixed installments, keeping a part of the tax revenue for his own use.
How is whip calculated?
Definition. WHIP is one of the most commonly used statistics for evaluating a pitcher’s performance. The statistic shows how well a pitcher has kept runners off the basepaths, one of his main goals. The formula is simple enough — it’s the sum of a pitcher’s walks and hits, divided by his total innings pitched.
How do you calculate WAR 162?
One can also easily compute a player’s WAR/162 for his prime years using a Fangraphs screen. Just take the total fWAR for the seasons in question, divide by the number of games played, then multiply by 162.
What is Ming practice of collecting taxes in hard currency?
Ming practice of collecting taxes in hard currency – Silver was required to pay provincial taxes in 1465, the salt tax in 1475. PArt of the larger global silver trade and silver in China.
What caused the global silver trade?
Silver was paramount to East Asia’s introduction into the global trade market. Under the Ming and Qing empires, China hoarded silver to boost its economy and increase its trading power. Many historians argue that silver was responsible for the birth of global economics and trade.
Did Muslims pay taxes in the Ottoman Empire?
As well as regional variation, there were different taxes applied to different religious and ethnic groups; Muslims paid resm-i çift whilst non-Muslims paid İspençe. These taxes might be further graduated according to people’s ability to pay.
Who collected taxes in Ottoman Empire?
What is a good WHIP number?
When it comes to Major League-caliber pitchers a good WHIP is around 1.00. Anything below 1.00 is outstanding (potential Cy Young worthy) since it demonstrates how dominant a pitcher is.
Who has the lowest WHIP in MLB history?
The lowest WHIP in baseball history was posted by Boston Red Sox pitcher Pedro Martínez in 2000. Martinez allowed 128 hits and 32 walks in 217 innings, for an 0.7373 ratio. Cleveland Indians right-hander Addie Joss holds the career record, with a 0.9678 WHIP in 2327 innings.
How do you calculate ops?
On-base plus slugging (OPS) is a sabermetric baseball statistic calculated as the sum of a player’s on-base percentage and slugging percentage. The ability of a player both to get on base and to hit for power, two important offensive skills, are represented.
Why did China demand bullion for their products?
Why did China demand bullion for their products? Because they were uninterested in trading their goods for European goods. They wanted bullion for their goods.
Why did the Chinese want silver?
Under the Ming and Qing empires, China hoarded silver to boost its economy and increase its trading power. Many historians argue that silver was responsible for the birth of global economics and trade.