What is the function of the pontine nuclei?
The pontine nuclei (PN) are the largest of the precerebellar nuclei, neuronal assemblies in the hindbrain providing principal input to the cerebellum. The PN are predominantly innervated by the cerebral cortex and project as mossy fibers to the cerebellar hemispheres.
What does the pedunculopontine nucleus produce?
The pedunculopontine nucleus is involved in many functions, including arousal, attention, learning, reward, and voluntary limb movements and locomotion. While once thought important to the initiation of movement, recent research suggests a role in providing sensory feedback to the cerebral cortex.
Where are pontine nuclei?
The basal pontine nuclei (BPN) (also known as basilar pons, pontine gray nuclei or pontine nuclei (PN)) and the reticulotegmental nuclei (RTN) (also known as nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis) are located within the ventral portion of the pons.
What are the 3 major nuclei in the pons?
Trigeminal nerve nuclei located in the pons include the sensory nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus, and main motor nucleus.
What does the pontine respiratory group control?
The Pontine Respiratory Group (PRG, upper pons) represents the “pneumotaxic center”, which acts as an “off” switch controlling the point at which inspiration is terminated and therefore determining the depth and frequency of breathing.
What is a pontine stroke?
A pontine cerebrovascular accident (also known as a pontine CVA or pontine stroke) is a type of ischemic stroke that affects the pons region of the brain stem. A pontine stroke can be particularly devastating and may lead to paralysis and the rare condition known as Locked-in Syndrome (LiS).
What does the locus coeruleus do?
The locus coeruleus (LC), a small brainstem nucleus, is the primary source of the neuromodulator norepinephrine (NE) in the brain. The LC receives input from widespread brain regions, and projects throughout the forebrain, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
What is the pontine base?
The basilar pons makes up two thirds of the pons within the brainstem. It has a ridged appearance with a shallow groove at the midline. This groove is called the basilar sulcus and is covered by the basilar artery, which feeds into the Circle of Willis and provides blood supply to the brainstem and cerebellum.
What are the four primary structural components of the pons?
The four groups of components in the pons are as follows: Sensory and motor nuclei of the cranial nerves V, VI, VII, and VIII—jaw muscles, anterior facial surface, lateral rectus muscle of the eye, and vestibular and cochlear nuclei of the internal ear.
Is the pontine respiratory group in the pons?
The pontine respiratory group is located in the dorsal lateral pons and contains both inspiratory and expiratory neurons.
Does the caudate release dopamine?
First, the caudate is a source of reward-dependent modulation of a particular motor behavior, namely saccadic eye movement. Second, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in the reward-dependent modulation of saccades, but in different manners.
Is the pontine in the cerebellum?
pons, portion of the brainstem lying above the medulla oblongata and below the cerebellum and the cavity of the fourth ventricle.