What is the composition of blast furnace gas?
The typical blast furnace gas composition in volume is N2 = 55.19%, CO = 20.78%, CO2 = 21.27% and H2 = 2.76% (Hou et al., 2011). The water content is removed by demisters following the cleaning process. This gas is used for the furnace mills, in gas engines and for electricity and steam generation.
What are the byproducts of blast furnace?
The by-product gases produced inside the blast furnace are released through the top pipe, mostly carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. For every ton of molten iron produced, the furnace emits about 1,600 cubic meters of gas. The gases go through primary and secondary dust collectors for purification.
What are the 3 raw materials in the blast furnace?
Historically, most iron ore is converted to iron using a blast furnace, although a number of newer technologies are replacing this process. The production of iron requires three important raw materials: iron ore, coal converted to “coke”, and limestone.
What material is blast furnace?
A blast furnace is usually built with a steel case and bricks made of magnesium oxide or other refractory material inside the case. The hot furnace cannot melt these bricks. The furnace is cooled with water running inside part of the case and bricks. The process of making iron is simple.
What is natural gas composition?
Natural gas is a combustible gas that is a mixture of simple hydrocarbon compounds. It contains primarily methane, along with small amounts of ethane, butane, pentane, and propane. Natural gas does not contain carbon monoxide.
What is the composition of producer gas?
Producer gas A gas mixture containing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2). In the USA, producer gas is a generic term referring to wood gas, town gas or syngas. In the UK, producer gas, also known as suction gas, means a fuel gas made from coke or other carbonaceous material.
What is the composition of slag?
The primary components of iron and steel slag are limestone (CaO) and silica (SiO2). Other components of blast furnace slag include alumina (Alsub>2O3) and magnesium oxide (MgO), as well as a small amount of sulfur (S), while steelmaking slag contains iron oxide (FeO) and magnesium oxide (MgO).
Is a blast furnace good for the environment?
Blast furnace slag (BFS) is the residue and solid waste from iron–steel metallurgical industry, whose storage not only occupies a large amount of land resources but also causes environmental pollution to the soil, underground water and atmosphere.
Why limestone is used in blast furnace?
Limestone is also used to remove impurities from the blast furnace when making iron. The impurities are mostly silicon dioxide (also known as sand). The calcium carbonate in the limestone reacts with the silicon dioxide to form calcium silicate (also known as slag).
What is the general composition of the gas produced?
While natural gas is formed primarily of methane, it also includes ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. Below, you can see a typical composition of natural gas….Chemical Composition of Natural Gas.
|Compound||Symbol||Percent in Natural Gas|
What makes up 90% of natural gas?
Natural gas is made up of a mixture of four naturally occurring gases, all of which have different molecular structures. This mixture consists primarily of methane, which makes up 70-90% of natural gas along with ethane, butane and propane.
What is the composition of coal gas?
coal gas, gaseous mixture—mainly hydrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide—formed by the destructive distillation (i.e., heating in the absence of air) of bituminous coal and used as a fuel.
How is slag formed in a blast furnace?
Blast furnace slag (BFS) is a by-product from iron production in blast furnaces, which are fed by a mixture of iron-ore, coke and limestone. In the process, the iron ore is reduced to iron while all remaining materials form the slag, which is tapped off as a molten liquid and cooled.
What is the formula of basic slag?
4P + 5O2 2P2O5 – Phosphorus pent oxide P2O5 + H2O 2 HPO3 – Metaphospheric acid When this meta phosphoric acid is heated with water, it forms orthophosphoric acid which is commonly called as phosphoric acid.
What chemical reactions happen in a blast furnace?
The reactions of the blast furnace involve 1) combustion of the fuel and its conversion into carbon monoxide, 2) reduction of the ore, and 3) formation of slag. A reaction such as FeO + CO = Fe + CO2 can occur in both the forward and backward direction under conditions existing somewhere in the blast furnace.
What is the source of carbon used for the blast furnace?
Blast furnaces produce pig iron from iron ore by the reducing action of carbon (supplied as coke) at a high temperature in the presence of a fluxing agent such as limestone.
How much CO2 does a blast furnace produce?
But blast furnaces produce an incredible amount of carbon dioxide. A recent study showed that 252.5 million tons of CO2 was produced in the period from 2005-2008. Putting it another way, blast furnaces produce between four and seven percent of all the man-made CO2 in the world. This is an effect that cannot be ignored.