What is Outer circle in English?
The Outer Circle consists of countries where English is used as a second language in multilingual settings such as Malaysia, Singapore, India, Nigeria, and their English is norm-developing.
What are Kachrus circles?
Kachru (1985) described the spread of English in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. These circles represent “the type of spread, the patterns of acquisition and the functional domains in which English is used across cultures and languages” (Kachru, 1985, p.
What are the three circles of English language?
In this model the diffusion of English is captured in terms of three Concentric Circles of the language: The Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle refers to English as it originally took shape and was spread across the world in the first diaspora.
Why does the outer circle develop English norms?
This is why the Outer Circle is norm-developing, because the contact with other languages prompts changes in its vocabulary and sometimes in its grammar. The Expanding Circle was never colonized by the British Empire and therefore English is not a language spoken by a significant number of people in the country.
What is outer circle in purposive communication?
The outer circle is made up of post-colonial countries in which English, though not the mother tongue, has for a significant period of time played an important role in education, governance, and popular culture.
Which countries are part of the outer circle?
The outer/middle circle denotes those countries where English usage has some colonial history. This includes nations such as India, Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Zambia.
What is inner circle outer circle and expanding circle?
The labels inner, outer, and expanding circles represent the type of spread, the patterns of acquisition, and the functional allocation of the English language in diverse cultural contexts. These labels remain controversial.
Why there are three circles of World Englishes?
In his 1985 paper, Kachru classified Englishes using the now famous “three circles” model. These were concentric circles and he called them the inner, outer and expanding circles. The inner circle countries were those in which English was traditionally the first language of the majority of the speakers.
What are the characteristics of of outer circle?
Why Philippines is included in the outer circle in the three concentric circle of English?
The Outer Circle represents the places where they speak official non-native varieties of English because of their colonial history. The speakers of these places are the ones who challenge the norms and develop them.
What is inner circle in language?
The inner circle refers to the countries where English is used as the primary language, such as the USA, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The outer/middle circle denotes those countries where English usage has some colonial history.
What is inner circle and outer circle?
The Outer Circle (mainly New Commonwealth countries) is norm-developing, easily adopting and perhaps developing its own norms. The Expanding Circle (which includes much of the rest of the world) is norm-dependent, because it relies on the standards set by native speakers in the Inner Circle.
Which circle of English does the Philippines belong to?
Hence, Philippines is one of the largest English-speaking nations that belongs in the Outer circle. English (PE), the variety of English native to the Filipinos.
What is English inner circle?
Why Philippines is included in the outer circle in the three concentric circles of English?