What is the subgingival plaque?
In the mouth, the plaque biofilm is a major aetiological factor in several disease processes, including dental caries. In particular, subgingival dental plaque is a major initiating factor in periodontal diseases and is much more challenging to study due to its location beneath the gumline.
What is subgingival microbiota?
The subgingival microbiota was dominated by bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes phylum and to a lesser extend the Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. Bacteria usually considered periodontal pathogens, like Porhyromonas ginigivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, generally showed low abundancy.
What is Supragingival and subgingival?
Supragingival plaque is bacteria adherent above the gingiva, whereas bacteria below the gingiva is called subgingival plaque. Growth in supragingival plaque mass results from nutrients obtained from ingested simple carbohydrates (glucose), lactic acid and other plaque components.
What is subgingival biofilm?
Subgingival biofilms are 3D structured communities of bacteria that live attached to the surface of the root of teeth or dental implants, with their outer surface directly facing the gingival tissue. In a healthy periodontium, these sites are not accessible to bacteria.
What does subgingival mean?
under the gums
The term subgingival refers to something that occurs or exists under the gums. This particularly applies to anything occurring or being in the crevice between the root or neck of a tooth and the gum margin.
What is subgingival calculus?
Subgingival calculus refers to calculus below the crest of the marginal gingiva which is not readily visible upon oral examination. It is usually dense and hard, dark- brown or green-black in color, flint-like in consistency, flattened in shape, and firmly attached to the tooth sur face ( s ) .
Where is the subgingival area?
Subgingival plaque is found below the gingival margin, between the tooth and the gingival sulcular tissue. The different regions of plaque are significant to different processes associated with diseases of the teeth and periodontium.
What is subgingival debridement?
Subgingival debridement is the part of nonsurgical therapy which aims to remove the biofilm without intentionally removing the cementum or subgingival calculus. The objective of this review was to describe the end point of this therapy, the different methods used and how often it should be carried out.
How is subgingival calculus formed?
Subgingival calculus forms just below the gumline and is usually dark in color from the presence of black-pigmented bacteria. The bacteria cells are coated in a layer of iron obtained from heme which occurs during gingival bleeding.
What causes subgingival calculus?
Removal of subgingival plaque and calculus remains the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Calculus formation is the result of petrification of dental plaque biofilm, with mineral ions provided by bathing saliva or crevicular fluids.
What are the classification of dental plaque?
Dental plaque is broadly classified as Supragingival plaque is found at or above the gingival margin; the supragingival plaque in direct contact with the gingival margin is referred to as marginal plaque. Subgingival plaque is found below the gingival margin, between the tooth and the gingival sulcular tissue.
What are the stages of plaque formation?
Distinct stages in plaque formation include: acquired pellicle formation; reversible adhesion involving weak long-range physico-chemical interactions between the cell surface and the pellicle, which can lead to stronger adhesin-receptor mediated attachment; co-adhesion resulting in attachment of secondary colonizers to …
How do you do subgingival scaling?
For subgingival scaling with hand instruments, use a subgingival curette (e.g. Gracey curette SG 11/12 or 13/14). Place the blade at 45°-90° to the root surface and pull firmly against the tissue to remove as much debris and chronically inflamed tissue as possible.
Which instrument is used for subgingival scaling?
Periodontal curettes have one face, one or two cutting edges and a rounded back and rounded toe. They are typically the instrument of choice for subgingival calculus removal.
Where is subgingival calculus found?
How do you find subgingival calculus?
The location and extent of subgingival calculus can be detected by clinical examination with a dental instrument such as an explorer or a periodontal probe, visually by blowing air down the gingival crevice and to a certain extent visible on a radiograph, however radiographic presentation of calculus is not always …
What is the difference between plaque and biofilm?
Biofilm- a layer or layers of bacterial cells surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances firmly attached to a surface (e.g., tooth, gingiva). Dental biofilm- a biofilm attached to the supragingival or subgingival surface of a tooth. Plaque- the visible accumulation of a supragingival or subgingival biofilm.