What does mid-upper arm circumference indicate?
Mid-upper arm circumference, often shortened to MUAC, is a measurement that allows health workers to quickly determine if a patient is acutely malnourished. PIH, as well as many other organizations, measures the circumference of a patient’s arm at the midpoint between his or her shoulder and elbow.
What is the normal mid-upper arm circumference of a child?
160 (69.56%) children aged 1 to 5 yrs had mid arm circumference within normal limits (more than 13.5 cm) while 62 (26.95) had MUAC between 12.5 to 13.5 cms (mild malnutrition), and 8 (3.47%) had MUAC below 12.5 cms (moderate to severe malnutrition) as shown in Table 5.
What are the characteristics of pediatric malnutrition?
Review and include the most common mechanisms for pediatric malnutrition: (a) decreased intake/ starvation (eg, fluid restriction, cardiac failure, anorexia nervosa), (b) increased requirement/ hypermetabolism (eg, burn injury), (c) excessive losses (chronic diarrhea, burns, proteinuria), and (d) failure to assimilate …
How do you know if a child is malnourished?
Other symptoms of malnutrition include:
- reduced appetite.
- lack of interest in food and drink.
- feeling tired all the time.
- feeling weaker.
- getting ill often and taking a long time to recover.
- wounds taking a long time to heal.
- poor concentration.
- feeling cold most of the time.
How do you measure malnutrition?
One way to measure malnutrition is to study nutrition-related outcomes, such as growth restriction, weight loss, and the occurrence of deficiency-related disorders. Common indicators recommended by the WHO include anthropometric measurements, biochemical indicators, and clinical signs of malnutrition.
Why is the use of mid upper arm circumference MUAC measurements in children less than 6 months old not recommended?
MUAC is currently not recommended for use among infants aged below 6 months because of a lack of data on its reliability, measurement in practice and predictive value for death.
What are indicators of malnutrition?
The indicators stunting, wasting, overweight and underweight are used to measure nutritional imbalance; such imbalance results in either undernutrition (assessed from stunting, wasting and underweight) or overweight.
What is mid arm circumference?
MUAC is a measure to assess nutritional status. It is measured on a straight left arm, mid-way between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow. It identifies acute malnutrition and is commonly used in children 6-59 months of age as well as pregnant women.
How head circumference gives idea about malnutrition?
Statistically significant association was found for head circumference and development quotient with severity of malnutrition and with each other. Conclusions: SAM adversely affects the developing brain of children as evidenced in our study by reduced head size and low DQ scores in children suffering from malnutrition.
What is the limitation of MUAC?
One limitation of the present study is that the optimal cut-offs in the MUAC distribution were not cross-validated in an independent sample which would be necessary to establish the value of MUAC for the assessment of overweight and overfatness, The present study used the widely accepted and recommended BMI-for-age cut …
What are the clinical features of malnutrition?
Clinical signs and symptoms of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) include the following: Poor weight gain. Slowing of linear growth. Behavioral changes – Irritability, apathy, decreased social responsiveness, anxiety, and attention deficits.
What are the measurements for malnutrition?