Is meningococcal rash palpable?
Patients with petechial/purpuric rashes and fever or toxicity require emergency evaluation. If the lesions are palpable, the differential diagnosis includes meningococcemia, disseminated gonococcal disease, endocarditis, RMSF, and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP).
What causes purpura in meningitis?
PF can be caused by several micro-organisms, e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae,group A streptococci, Legionella pneumophila, and viral infections.
What are the hallmark signs and symptoms of meningococcal meningitis?
Common symptoms of meningococcal meningitis include sudden fever, headache, and stiff neck. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light, and confusion. Children and infants may show different signs and symptoms, such as inactivity, irritability, vomiting, or poor reflexes.
How does meningococcal cause petechiae?
The bacteria may seed local sites such as the meninges, joints or the pericardium or multiply in the bloodstream, causing meningococcemia with petechiae.
What is palpable purpura?
Palpable purpura refers to elevated, firm, hemorrhagic papules or plaques up to several centimeters in diameter, most commonly located on dependent surfaces, such as the lower legs (Figure 75-2), buttocks, or the back in a recumbent patient.
Can meningitis cause petechiae?
It leads to broken blood vessels, giving the appearance of a rash. A doctor may refer to this as a meningitis rash or a “petechial” rash. A rash caused by bacterial meningitis may have these characteristics, regardless of the person’s age: tiny red, pink, brown, or purple “pinprick marks,” called petechiae, on the skin.
What is the difference between meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal Septicaemia?
However, most children and young people make a full recovery if they are treated early. Bacterial meningitis occurs when bacteria infect the lining of the brain (the meninges) and the spinal cord. Meningococcal septicaemia – or blood poisoning – occurs when the bacteria in the blood multiply uncontrollably.
What does a meningococcal rash look like?
PINK, REDDISH AND PURPLE MARKS A meningococcal rash is caused by bleeding under the skin. It can start as pink/reddish pinprick-sized lesions, progressing to larger purple bruise-like markings as the rash spreads and further bleeding occurs (i.e. haemorrhages).
What is meningococcal purpura Fulminans?
Purpura fulminans is a cutaneous manifestation of disseminated intravascular coagulation. It presents as a purpuric rash and symmetric gangrene that often necessitates amputation. It can accompany infections with meningococcus, varicella, Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus and Hemophilus influenzae.
Is palpable purpura serious?
Palpable purpura is a condition where purpura, which constitutes visible non-blanching hemorrhages, are raised and able to be touched or felt upon palpation. It indicates some sort of vasculitis secondary to a serious disease.
What is difference between petechiae and purpura?
Petechiae are small (1–3 mm), red, nonblanching macular lesions caused by intradermal capillary bleeding (Figure 181-1). Purpura are larger, typically raised lesions resulting from bleeding within the skin (Figures 181-2 and 181-3).
How do you diagnose meningococcal meningitis?
Testing for meningococcal meningitis may include imaging techniques such as CT scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other testing may include examination of the blood and/or skin. Diagnosis is made by laboratory examination of the cerebrospinal fluid that often reveals the presence of bacterial meningitis.
What is Purpuric rash?
The term purpura is usually used to refer to a skin rash in which small spots of blood appear on the skin. A purpuric rash is not a disease but it is caused by conditions that result in blood leaking into the skin and other body surfaces.
What is the difference between meningitis and meningococcal?
What is the difference between bacterial meningococcal disease and viral meningitis? Bacterial meningococcal disease, including meningococcal meningitis, usually has a more sudden onset and is a more severe illness than viral meningitis.
What does purpura fulminans look like?
The initial appearance of purpura fulminans lesions is of well-demarcated erythaamatous lesions which progress rapidly to develop irregular central areas of blue-black haemorrhagic necrosis. Advancing areas of necrosis are often surrounded by a thin border of erythaema that fades into adjacent unaffected skin.
How is purpura fulminans diagnosed?
Specific levels of antithrombin III, free protein C, and free and total protein S may help confirm the diagnosis especially in the neonatal form of the disease. Otherwise, the evaluation of patients with purpura fulminans mimics the evaluation of the underlying cause.