How does HTLV-1 cause ATL?

How does HTLV-1 cause ATL?

HTLV-1 stimulates infected T cells to proliferate in vivo, by persistent or intermittent expression of Tax and HBZ. This proliferation results in long-lived, abundant clones of infected T cells in the circulation [68], each clone distinguished by a unique site of integration of the HTLV-1 provirus in the host genome.

What is ATL leukemia?

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare and often aggressive (fast-growing) T-cell lymphoma that can be found in the blood (leukemia), lymph nodes (lymphoma), skin, or multiple areas of the body.

What causes ATL?

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL or ATLL) is a rare cancer of the immune system’s T-cells caused by human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1).

Is ATL curable?

Several nonrandomized studies have shown that the only way to cure ATL is allo-SCT (OS, 30% to 45%).

How do you treat ATL?

Antiviral therapy. An important advance in the treatment of ATL was initially reported in 2 preliminary phase 2 studies with the combination of an antiretroviral agent zidovudine (AZT) and IFN-α. In these 2 studies, a high response rate was observed, particularly in patients with previously untreated acute ATL.

What are the symptoms of HTLV-1?

Initial symptoms are subtle and include gait problems, unexplained falls, low back pain, constipation, urinary urgency/incontinence and numbness or pain in the lower limbs. Over the years, progressive leg weakness ensues followed by the exacerbation of the urinary and sensory symptoms.

How is HTLV-1 diagnosed?

Diagnosis. The diagnosis of HTLV-I infection is usually made by detection of antibodies against the virus in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid. In some cases, techniques that detect HTLV-I genome in infected cells may be necessary.

What are the signs and symptoms of human T-cell leukemia (HTLV-1)?

Human T-cell leukemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) generally causes no signs or symptoms. However, some affected people may later develop adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or other medical conditions.

What is the pathophysiology of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection?

A typical person infected with the retrovirus human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carries tens of thousands of clones of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes, each clone distinguished by a unique integration site of the provirus in the host genome.

Is there a cure for human T-cell leukemia type 1 (HTLV-1)?

No cure or treatment exists for human T-cell leukemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-1). Management is focused on early detection and preventing the spread of HTLV-1 to others. Screening blood doners, promoting safe sex and discouraging needle sharing can decrease the number of new infections.